Waterborne Disease In The United States

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    The main branches of pathology are clinical pathology, anatomical pathology and general pathology. General pathology describes the scientific study of disease which can describes abnormality that is causing changes in the structure or function of body parts. Anatomical pathology involves the study and diagnosis of disease based on the examination of surgically removed bodily specimens or sometimes of the whole body . Clinical pathology concerns the laboratory analysis of blood, urine and tissue samples to examine and diagnose disease. However, for children, pregnant women and those who are malnourished, it can cause anemia, protein deficiency, and retarded growth. The malarial parasite destroys red blood cells, and induce fever, head and muscle aches, nausea, diarrhea, and even jaundice.
    On the other hand, drought-affected areas also become high-risk due to the accumulation of high concentration of pathogens in a limited amount of available water sources. The protozoan organism is transmitted by unknowingly consuming cysts in food, and it affects the intestine. The common symptoms of amoebiasis include abdominal cramps and watery stools. Typhoid fever is caused by Salmonella typhi bacteria transmitted via contaminated water. The patients typically suffer from prolonged episodes of fever, loss of appetite, nausea, headache, constipation, and loss of body weight.
    Many of these pathogens are spread through ingestion, or by eating or drinking contaminated food or beverages. Illnesses can also be spread from person to person or through contact with contaminated animals or the environment. Inhaling aerosolized droplets of contaminated water from fountains, misters, or showers, may also cause illness. Specific health outcomes are determined by different exposure pathways and multiple other social and behavioral factors, some of which are also affected by climate (Figure 6.1).
    After heavy flooding, sewage plants fail and release copious amounts of untreated waste. For more information about waterborne illness, symptoms and pathogens please visit theCDC’s Waterborne Disease Prevention website. High levels of chemicals, nitrates, and other heavy metals are mixed in water resources due to industrial pollution and/or the over-use of agricultural chemicals, which adversely affects human health. Climate change, occurring due to unplanned industrialization practices and improper waste management systems has a harsh impact on our water resources. Pure water is important for us to ensure our well-being, since the human body is 70% of water. The majority of victims of water contamination are children (about 2.2 million) who suffer from illnesses that arise due to organisms thriving in water resources due to pollution.
    There can also be stagnant areas within the pipes where water sits for long periods of time. This creates the perfect environment for biofilm-related pathogens to grow (e.g. NTM, Pseudomonas, and Legionella) in biofilms. On top of this, our deteriorating water infrastructure is overwhelmed by the millions of pipes that are decades past their lifespan. These pipes create continual maintenance issues that can develop into emergency situations (e.g., a water main break), during which pathogens may contaminate water in the system. How did biofilm-related diseases become such a significant driver of the waterborne disease burden in the United States?
    Most cases of salmonella come from ingesting food or water contaminated with feces. Undercooked meat, egg products, fruits, and vegetables can also carry the disease. Most people don’t develop complications, but children, pregnant women, older adults, and people with weakened immune systems are most at risk. This waterborne disease is shared through contaminated water, most often in ponds and streams, but it can also be found in a town’s water supply, swimming pools, and more. The infection is caused by a parasite and typically clears up after a few weeks. However, it’s possible for those who have been exposed will experience intestinal problems for years to come.
    For general drinking water monitoring information, visit Drinking Water Monitoring. Verywell Health uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy. In cases of severe disease, kidney dysfunction needs to be treated with short-term dialysis. It’s important to treat leptospirosis with antibiotics to prevent organ failure. Patients should be treated as soon as possible before organ failure occurs.
    Several instances of the outbreak of epidemic infections after natural calamities such as flood have been recorded in history. Increased frequency of intense extreme weather events can cause flooding of water and sewage treatment facilities, increasing the risk of waterborne diseases. A woman and her child gather water from the swamp in Kikomera Biri villageLifewater staff are serving the village of Kikomera Biri, Uganda, where families gather water from a swamp. The results of water testing showed an extremely high risk for dangerous pathogens like typhoid, harmful strains of E. Unless this community—which is already experiencing extreme poverty—pays for a taxi to drive into town for expensive, bottled water, they have no choice but to keep drinking from the swamp. Although rare in industrialized countries, typhoid fever is well-known in extremely poor parts of developing nations; it’s estimated that up to 20 million people worldwide suffer from the illness each year.

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